Speech of Explanation


With this speech, I had to face some adversity because my laptop was lost with all of my luggage while on vacation. I had to completely redo all of my work in a very short span of time. This, I believe, led to my speech and work to not be as fleshed out as I wanted it to be. It had some flow issues and the PowerPoint slides were not as detailed and refined as I wanted them to be. I could have done a better job at fleshing out my topic in retrospect. Overall I thought it was a solid presentation, but it could have been much better.



The memory is burned deeply into my mind, we were having a party in my friend’s apartment when a lovely redheaded girl asked me if I wanted to go to an exclusive party. I said yes of course as she quickly led me through the dilapidated apartment complex to a line of people waiting to get into a club. I glanced over my shoulder and saw my good friend Mike Lahey. Except it didn’t exactly look like Mike Lahey. It was his body, with a spider’s head and spider legs jutting from his back. Before I can react he pins me to the floor and erupts spider goo all over me. I run as fast as my legs can push me. Then I wake up, sweating and dry heaving. I’ve just had another dream. According to the survey, a good majority of you shares the ability to remember your dreams, same as me. Dreaming is an experience all humans share. We all dream, whether we recall them or not. Psychotherapist and Harvard graduate Jeffery Sumber states that it is biologically the case that we all dream at some point during our sleep. To help you better understand these nightly occurrences, I would like to explain the intricacies of dreaming, which include how we dream, what is a dream, and why we dream.

I. How we dream

REM Sleep, or the Rapid Eye Movement stage is where dreaming occurs. (show clip #1)

REM Sleep occupies 20-25% of total sleep, which is about 90-120 Minutes

Characterized by rapid eye movement, low muscle tone, and rapid low-voltage EEG (Electroencephalography).

Dr. Helene A. Emsellem, Director for The Center for Sleep & Wake Disorders says: “Restoration of our psyches takes place during sleep, particularly REM, allowing us to awaken in a good mood, with creative ideas, novel solutions to problems and ready to take on the challenges of the new day.”

Many of you correctly discerned that dreaming occurs during REM sleep in the survey

II. What is a dream?

Dr. Arnold Richards, editor of the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association has said: “Modern psychoanalytic thought now holds that dreams are just one of several roads to the unconscious.”

A dream is a sensory experience that occurs inside the brain during REM sleep.

Most people inside a dream continue to function with similar sensory and motor skills.

For those who acknowledge their state of dreaming, known as lucid dreaming, a dream plays out like a first person movie. An even smaller crowd can directly control what happens inside their dream.

Combined short examples: Ambrose students have weighed in with their own dream experiences. Nick Erwin had a recurring dream of approaching the same terrifying house where a group of vampires would chase him and awake as he escaped down a large slide. Ross Delfino had a dream where he floated through space in a spacesuit while eating a cheeseburger. And Nathan Ackert had a dream in which him and all of his friends were locked in his dorm room during Last Blast and could not escape. (Show clip 2)

III. Why we dream.

Dr. Angel Morgan of Saybrook University states: “It’s easy to see during sleep studies that people do dream, but it’s much more difficult for researchers to agree on why.”

There are many theories on dreaming

It may be to process all of the excess sensory information taken in during the day

Possibly the transfer of short-term memories to long-term memories during sleep, which requires mild brain activation, where our subconscious fills in to make sense of what is discarded

The possibility that dreams are the brain trying to discern between long-term memories and daydreams.



Dreams are still one of the great mysteries of science. Even in the 21st century, there isn’t very much concrete information on dreams. With breakthroughs in neuroscientific research, researchers are getting ever closer to unlocking the secrets of the dream world. But until then, Dream on.







Training Speech

The purpose is to learn to give clear instructions by demonstrating a process:
a. Audience can follow the process via speaker’s use of a mnemonic device
b. Visualization of the process via demonstration will aid audience retention

Title ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­of Speech-
2 Demographic references –
2 Psychographic reference-
Reference to survey results-
Acronym/mnemonic device-
Power Point slides-


I feel as though I had a better handle on this presentation overall then my last one. One of the main reasons is that I rectified the issues I had with the first speech. I made my notecards simpler and neater. This led to my overall presentation being more cohesive. Another problem I had with the first speech that I did not encounter this time around was that with the first speech, I had trouble incorporating a personal story into my speech. With the training speech, it is a more formulaic approach to creating the presentation. I found that this allowed me to have a better overall flow with this speech.


  1. Introduction

How many of you have listened to a celebrity, politician, or professional athlete make a public apology? In today’s world, everyone is scrutinized under the microscope that is the public eye. Our current culture is easily offended, and many times a mistake can end a career. Sandra Fathi, founder of the Public Relations company, Affect, says it doesn’t matter if the issue of the day is a single error or a national one, to mitigate a full-blown crisis, corporate executives must have a well thought out communications plan, and part of that plan should focus on how to react when a mistake occurs. Most of you had stated that you have never had to make a formal apology. But as the age old phrase goes, someone in this room could be the President one day. So to help you understand the importance of structuring an apology, I would like to instruct you on how to utilize the AATS method to create a public apology.

  1. Account Offence

Identify the wrong doing

Ensures everyone is on the same page

Be specific

  1. Acknowledge the Damage

Dr. Aaron Lazare, Professor of Psychiatry at University of Massachusetts Medical School says that a valid acknowledgment must make clear who the offender is and who is the offended.

Ensure that you communicate that you understand what you have done wrong

Legitimizes the offended party’s reactions

  1. Taking Responsibility

Let others know that you understand that your actions did cause them harm

Do not offer excuses

Dorothy Crenshaw founder of Crenshaw Communications says that pointing fingers of blame at partners or hiding behind circumstances, even if legitimate, will undermine the positive impact.

Apology is about THEM and how THEY feel

  1. Statement of Regret

You all said no apology was better than a half-hearted apology

This is where the most sincere apology occurs

Followed by a promise that it will not happen again

You all said sincerity was one of the most important piece of an apology, and this is where you lay it on


The AATS method of creating a public apology is a simple, yet time-tested strategy that has allowed people to apologize in a professional setting. A well written and thought out apology can save a career and get someone out of a dicey situation. Just remember, honesty is the best policy, so don’t be the next Bill Clinton.





Speech of Conviction



                                tell them your story                   

To inspire audience to reconnect to beliefs
To reinforce competence, character and composure
To apply techniques: psychographic & demographic

Two psychographic references in body of the speech
One demographic reference
Several rhetorical elements throughout speech
Clever speech title
3 expert testimonies for competence-credibility


This speech included a few challenges for me to overcome. The first was that the addition of psychographic and demographic references within the speech. This was the first time I used such references in a speech. Another challenge for me was the inclusion of the story. I found that it was difficult for me to properly integrate the story with the speech in a professional manner. Other than that, I thought the assignment overall was not very difficult. In the future I will use less notecards except for basic outline and references. Reading off of the notecards did more to confuse me than help me when it came to making the speech smooth.


Hot Fuzz

Intro: The Fuzz, 5-0, po-po, pigs. Every one of you as a college student has had some sort of interaction with the police, and we all have our opinions of law enforcement personnel. Up until I was 17 years old, I had a noble and idealistic view of the police. As long as I obeyed the law, every officer would be on my side and would never lie to me or violate my rights. That was until I was standing next to my car watching it be torn apart for drugs I didn’t have and accused of violations I never perpetrated. The event left me very shaken, and inspired me to research how to communicate with law enforcement effectively, and how to flex my rights when necessary. Neill Harris, a 33 year veteran and training commander of the Maryland and Baltimore police departments says: What few people understand, but police know all too well, is that your constitutional rights only apply if you understand and assert them. To help you better understand how to flex your rights, I would like to educate you on how to effectively communicate with and conduct yourself when dealing with law enforcement.

  1. A) Many of you, like me, have a positive outlook on law enforcement. (psychographic)

B) What is important to understand, however, police are people who make mistakes like all of us. (Comparison)

C) Trip to Pizza joint

D) Nathan squeals tires

E) Pulled over

II.                A) Lied to by officer

B) Deny claims, exercise 5th amendment

C) Professor James Duane of the Regent University School of Law says that       the 5th amendments basic function is to protect the innocent of ambiguous circumstances.

III.              A) Many of you have said that you have never had your vehicle searched by the police. (psychographic)

B) Step out of car, illegally searched

C) Nothing Found

D) Martin Kron a New York traffic attorney says if you consent, an officer can search your entire vehicle.

IV.               A) Seven squad cars arrive

B) Eventually told free to go

V.               A) Police refrain from answering my questions

B) Nathan only receives reckless driving tickets

Conclusion: As I look back on my experience, I learned two very important lessons. You should always exercise your constitutional rights, and always conduct yourself properly and respectfully when dealing with law enforcement.

Obama and the Continued Brushfire Wars


            This year, President Barack Obama will be facing the lowest approval rating he has ever had throughout his presidency. This can be directly related to the utter debacle that was Obamacare’s initial roll out and the technical disaster of the website. Just as Obama’s PR team is attempting to get a handle on damage control, they have another looming disaster that is on the horizon. That horizon is the promised 2014 pull out of American soldiers from Afghanistan. Obama promised to have all US combat soldiers removed rom Afghanistan by 2014. He made this point an essential part of his reelection campaign while he blasted Governor Mitt Romney on not having a definitive plan for withdrawing US Forces from Afghanistan.


            If the recent reports out of Afghanistan are true, President Obama and Afghani President Hamid Karzai have hashed out an agreement that will have 10,000-16,000 US and NATO troops after the withdrawal of combat troopers. Although these soldiers will not be in an active combat role, such as patrolling cities and villages or hunting insurgents, it is still a significant amount of troops to be deployed in harms way. Many believe that this will ruin Obama’s credibility, amid an already abysmally low approval rating. Obama will need to scramble to save face, especially when troops are still in Afghanistan after 2014 and his political opponents begin to smell blood in the water. It is very dangerous for the leader of a country when the citizens cannot trust what they say. It will be very interesting to see how the White House PR team will react to this in the future.

(Referenced Article)